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diamond

glossary

A

Abrasion

White scratches as observed on the surface of a diamond. Most commonly caused as a result of friction with other diamonds.

Adamantine Lustre

An extremely reflective and bright lustre on a diamond.

Alloy

Two or more metallic components blended together. This is done to increase resistance and durability.

American Gem Society (AGS)

A professional gemological laboratory that offers impartial grading on the vital attributes of a diamond from a scale of 0 to 10 (0 being ideal and 10 being extremely poor). The grading reports furnished by AGS authenticate the quality and integrity of the stone in question and lend it credibility with potential buyers.

Anisotropic

A stone which has the ability to split a ray of light into two that both travel at different velocities within it, also referred to as Double Refraction.

Annealing

A controlled temperature procedure wherein a diamond is heated then swiftly cooled. This process is conducted independently or in conjunction with irradiation, usually to enhance the natural color of the stone.

Assaying

The procedure of determining the composition of an element through an in depth appraisal. In the field of gemology, it refers to ascertaining the content of minerals in precious metals to gauge their potential value and quality. This is usually carried out by a professional metallurgist.

Asscher Cut

A diamond shape that was initially patented before it became commonly used by several jewellers. It is a type of step cutting that resembles an Emerald Cut. It is square or rectangular in shape with clipped corners when viewed from an angle perpendicular to the table.

B

Baguette Cut

Refers to a diamond shape that is a type of step cutting. When viewed from an angle perpendicular to the table it is rectangular in shape and has straight sides with four pointed corners.

Bar Setting

A type of setting quite similar to a channel setting. The gemstones are placed closely together and are separated by thin metal bars to secure them in place.

Bearding

Miniscule hairline fractures extending onto the polished surface of a diamond from its girdle.

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

An agency operating in India responsible for hallmarking gold jewelry to attest to its purity thereby protecting the interests of the public and spurring jewelry exports.

Bezel Facets

The eight symmetrical facets that are positioned between the table and the girdle of a diamond. They connect these two components and each of them is shaped like a kite. Hence, these are also referred to as Kite Facets.

Bezel Setting

A type of setting wherein the metal rim holds the gemstone securely in place. It is crafted to the exact size and shape of the stone and encircles it entirely leaving only the portion above the girdle visible.

Blemish

A blanket term for any type of surface imperfection on a diamond. (eg. feathers, abrasions, nicks, etc.)

Brilliance

The strength of white light reflected from the facets of a diamond.

Brilliant / Round Cut

Refers to the shape of a diamond with a circular outline when looked at from an angle perpendicular to the table. It is one of the oldest and most popular diamond cuts in the industry. This type of cut boasts of 58 facets or 57 if the culet is not included.

Bruting

Also known as girdling, this is the process through which two diamonds are positioned to grind against one another, thereby giving them their shape.

Bruited / Bearded Girdle

It is an unfaceted / unpolished girdle finish that has a milky or frosty look. This type of girdle has several miniature feathers on it which give it an opaque aesthetic.

Burn Mark

A frosted effect across the surface of a diamond resulting from overheating while polishing.

C

Carat

Considered to be the most vital ‘C’ of the 4Cs, it is the current established unit to measure the weight of a diamond. 1 carat = 0.20 grams.

Cavity

A blemish that manifests itself as a depression or groove on the surface of a diamond.

Certificate

This is furnished by gemological laboratories such as Gemological Institute of America (GIA), American Gem Society (AGS), European Gemological Laboratory (EGL), International Gemological Institute (IGI), Hoge Raad voor Diamant (HRD), etc. The purpose of a diamond certificate is to corroborate the stone's weight, cut, colour, clarity and proportions.

Channel Setting

A type of setting wherein the stones are set closely together with no metal separation / barrier dividing them.

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Diamonds

The process by which diamonds are created artificially by dissociating hydrogen molecules at extremely high temperatures (700 – 900 C) thereby resulting in the growth of diamond crystals.

Chip

A jagged and shallow fracture on a diamond's surface.

Clarity

The scale that considers the blemishes and inclusions in a diamond and accordingly ranks them from FL (Flawless) to I (Included).

Clarity Enhancement

The method through which the clarity of a diamond is improved by filling in the cavities or fractures with resin / glass.

Clasp

The section of a piece of jewelry that can be fastened securely to hold it in place.

Cleavage / Cleavage Plane

An internal break in the stone that may reach the surface. Caused as a result of weak molecular bonding. It is the tendency of the stone to break / split in smooth areas parallel to these weak bonding spots.

Cloud

A cluster of tiny inclusions that give the diamond a cloudy white appearance.

Coating

The method by which a stone is coated either partially or entirely to alter its color.

Color

The scale that considers the combination of saturation, hue and tone of a diamond and accordingly ranks it from D (colorless) to Z (possessing more vivid colors or tonal modifiers). Fancy colored stones are not graded as per the above system. GIA assigns grades ranging from Faint to Fancy Vivid for these diamonds.

Conflict Diamonds

Also referred to as blood diamonds or war diamonds, these stones are used to fund illicit military insurrections, civil wars, rebel movements, etc. against the legitimate government in power. Mining conflict diamonds usually encapsulates a blatant violation of human rights. The percentage of blood diamonds in circulation has dropped dramatically following stringent legislations that prohibit trading of these stones.

Contrast

The overall intensity in the brightness of a diamond.

Crown

The faceted portion of a diamond above its girdle and below its table.

Crown Angle

The measured angle where the bezel facets and the plane of the girdle intersect. This angle helps gauge the percentage of dispersion of a diamond.

Crown Height

The portion of a diamond measured from the table to the girdle.

Crystal Inclusion

A mineral deposit trapped within a diamond during its formation. It can also be described as a conspicuous crystalline structure within the stone caused by natural or artificial catalysts.

Cubic Zirconia

Cubic Zirconia (CZ) is a diamond simulant manufactured to imitate a real diamond in terms of appearance and refractivity. CZ crystals are derived by melting zirconium dioxide and powdered zirconium and blitzing them to about 4,900ºF.

Culet

The facet at the very tip of the pavilion. It is usually a flat polished surface that prevents the diamond from chipping. Along with the culet, a round / brilliant cut stone has a total of 58 facets.

Culet Size

Based on the average diameter of the girdle, this is the average width of the culet.

Cushion Cut

Refers to the shape of a diamond wherein the outline, when viewed from an angle perpendicular to the table, is rectangular or square with soft or curved corners as opposed to a Princess Cut which has pointed corners.

Cut

The overall proportions/silhouette of a diamond. The stone's shape, contours, facets and finish play an important role in its cut.

D

Deep Cut

In a deep cut diamond, the light entering it strikes the pavilion facets at too low an angle and promptly leaks out the sides and bottom rather than exiting through the top of the stone. These diamonds lack that breathtaking brilliance and sparkle as a result. Deep cut stones are fashioned with the intention of retaining maximum weight rather than beauty.

Depth

The measured distance in millimeters between the diamond's table and culet.

Depth Percentage

The percentage acquired by dividing the diamond's depth by its width.

Diamantaire

A diamond maestro; one with excessive knowledge in the field of gemology, most specifically diamonds as well as an extremely skilled diamond cutter.

Diameter

The distance between the two furthest points on the girdle's outline of a diamond.

Diamond

The separation of white light into a rainbow of colors refracting from a diamond.

Dispersion

A blanket term for any type of surface imperfection on a diamond. (eg. feathers, abrasions, nicks, etc.)

Double Refraction

A compound gemstone comprising of two or more parts of different materials or the same material.

Doublet

Refers to the shape of a diamond with a circular outline when looked at from an angle perpendicular to the table. It is one of the oldest and most popular diamond cuts in the industry. This type of cut boasts of 58 facets or 57 if the culet is not included.

Durability

The overall stability, toughness and hardness of a gemstone. Diamonds being unsusceptible to corrosive substances, rate higher in durability than any other material on the Mohs Scale.

E

Emerald Cut

Refers to a type of step cutting. It is a diamond shape wherein the outline of the stone is rectangular or squarish when viewed from an angle perpendicular to its table.

Enhancement

Artificially altering the properties of a diamond to improve its appearance, value, stability, etc.

Extra Facet

A small additional facet added to a diamond to give the stone a more polished and proportionate look. It usually exists somewhere along the girdle and is added to eliminate imperfections.

Eye-Clean

When grading them for their clarity, eye-clean diamonds are those that have no inclusions visible to the naked eye.

F

4 Cs

Carat, Color, Clarity and Cut. These are hailed as the four integral factors affecting the value / quality of a diamond.

Facet

The flat, polished planes on the surface of a diamond.

Faceted Girdle

Any diamond that is not naturally white in color. Such as pink, blue, yellow, etc.

Fancy Color

A diamond maestro; one with excessive knowledge in the field of gemology, most specifically diamonds as well as an extremely skilled diamond cutter.

Fancy Shape

Any diamond which does not have a round / brilliant cut.

Fashioning

Also known as Fracture Filling, this is the process by which feathers / fractures on a diamond are filled with glass having a high refractive index. Feather Filling is done to enhance the clarity of the stone. Of course, it isn't a permanent treatment and could be undone if the diamond is subject to ultrasonic cleaning, high temperatures, etc.

Feather Filling

A blanket term for any type of surface imperfection on a diamond. (eg. feathers, abrasions, nicks, etc.)

Fineness

In a precious metal, fineness is the ratio of the primary metal’s weight to that of any secondary metals or impurities added therein.

Fingerprint

A unique identifying attribute in a diamond that distinguishes it from the rest. This could be a feather, crack, blemish, inclusion and the likes.

Finish

An inspection of the symmetry and polish of a diamond. Rated on a scale from Excellent to Poor, polish speaks of the surface aesthetic of the stone while symmetry alludes to the proportions, contouring, outline, facet arrangement etc.

Fire

The flashes of color akin to a rainbow that occur with the dispersion of light entering a diamond.

Fisheye

When the cut of a diamond is too shallow, one can observe the reflection of the girdle through the stone's table.

Fluorescence

When exposed to ultraviolet light or blacklight, some diamonds have the tendency to emit a soft white glow that is invisible to the naked eye.

Fracture

Irregular in appearance, these are breaks in the stone that do not follow in the general direction of a cleavage plane.

Fracture Filling

Also known as Feather Filling, this is the process by which feathers / fractures on a diamond are filled with glass having a high refractive index. Fracture Filling is done to enhance the clarity of the stone. Of course, it isn't a permanent treatment and could be undone if the diamond is subject to ultrasonic cleaning, high temperatures, etc.

Full Cut

A round / brilliant cut diamond with either 57 or 58 facets.

G

Gemological Institute of America (GIA)

An organization devoted to education and research in the field of gemology. It is one of the most reputed and recognized laboratories in the world that offers gem grading services and provides identification reports based on carat, color, clarity and cut of the stone. The 4Cs and the current diamond grading system in place were introduced by GIA.

Gemologist

An academically trained jeweler qualified to appraise gemstones.

Gemology

A field dedicated to identification and evaluation of both natural and artificial gemstones.

Gemstone

An organic or inorganic substance most commonly fashioned for the purpose of being set into jewelry. These include diamonds, pearls, rubies, emeralds, etc. Each of these stones comes with distinct optical, physical and chemical properties.

Gem Studies Laboratory (GSL)

An independent gemstone testing, identification and diamond certification laboratory from Australia.

Girdle

The outermost edge of a diamond that forms the perimeter of the stone. It is the widest part and could be polished, bruited or faceted or a combination of these. The girdle acts as a separator between the crown and pavilion facets. It varies in thickness depending upon the shape and style of the stone.

Girdle Thickness

An independent gemstone testing, identification and diamond certification laboratory from Australia.

Gem Studies Laboratory (GSL)

This is measured on a scale that ranges from extremely thick to extremely thin. A mid-range thickness is the most optimal. Girdle thickness is a description of the average girdle depth.

Grading Report

Also referred to as a certificate, this is an independent, impartial assessment of the various attributes of a gemstone provided by organizations dedicated to upholding quality and integrity. It details the cut, clarity, color, carat, symmetry, proportion, fluorescence, etc. of the stone. Of course, not all institutions that offer these services are reliable. GIA and AGS are world renowned laboratories with an established credibility and stringent standards. A grading report issued by them is thoroughly legitimate and is an honest evaluation of the stone in question.

Graining

Graining

H

Hallmarking

The process of engraving an official mark on gold jewelry to attest to its fineness and purity.

Hardness

The ability of a stone to withstand corrosions, scratches and general wear and tear. A diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance known to man measuring a solid 10 on the Mohs Scale.

Heart Cut

Any diamond that is not naturally white in color. Such as pink, blue, yellow, etc.

High Pressure and High Temperature (HTHP)

The application of an extremely high temperature / pressure to a diamond to simulate authentic conditions as far as possible given that natural diamonds are formed in the Earth's mantle under a similar environment. This is a method to synthesize diamonds as well as improve, remove and modify the stone's color.

Hoge Raad voor Diamant (HRD)

Translating to 'The Diamond High Council', HRD was established in 1973. Apart from overseeing the majority of exports and imports of the world's loose diamonds it also offers certificates grading the different attributes of a diamond as per internationally accepted standards.

Hue

The primary tinge or intensity of the color of a diamond that is most predominantly noticeable (For e.g. yellow, blue, red, etc.)

I

Ideal Cut

This type of diamond cut is the most brilliant and beautiful with optimal reflections of light entering the stone. There is no leakage of light from the sides or the bottom and it reflects off of the pavilion facets only to exit the diamond through the top creating that exquisite sparkle.

Imitation

An artificial creation intended to impersonate the appearance, color and overall aesthetic of a stone without sharing its chemical properties. (For eg. Cubic Zirconia)

International Gemological Institute (IGI)

An acclaimed gemological laboratory offering impartial gemstone grading services thereby attesting to their quality and integrity.

Inclusion

Imperfections in a diamond that may materialize during the stone's formation or during further treatment. (For eg. feathers, clouds, crystals, etc.)

Infrared Spectroscopy

A technique used to study the chemical composition of a substance and deals with light rays that lie in the infrared area of the electromagnetic spectrum i.e. light not visible to the human eye. Studying the emission, absorption and reflection of these light rays, it can be used to identify and analyze different chemicals.

Iridescence

The rainbow of colours that sprints across the surface of an object (as with a diamond or a soap bubble) due to refraction of light waves. It shifts when the angle of illumination or the angle of view changes.

Irradiation

Bombarding the atomic structure of a diamond with intense radiation to artificially administer a colour to it.

Isotropic

A diamond is isotropic as it displays the same optical qualities throughout the stone in all directions.

K

Kimberley Process

An initiative undertaken by several of the world's governments to stem trading of conflict diamonds through its international certification procedure thereby ensuring ethical provenance and greater transparency in the trade process.

Kimberlite

A type of diamond-bearing rock.

Kite Facets

The eight symmetrical facets that are positioned between the table and the girdle of a diamond. They connect these two components and each of them is shaped like a kite. These are also referred to as Bezel Facets.

Knot

A crystal in a diamond that reaches the surface.

L

Lab Grown Diamond

A diamond which has been synthesized by human intervention rather than through natural processes. The properties of these diamonds, both chemical and physical, are intended to imitate natural ones. Also called synthetic diamonds, these are manufactured through High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) or through Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD).

Lamproite

Rich in magnesium, this is a diamond-bearing igneous rock.

Laser Cut

Fashioning the shape of a diamond with the use of a laser thereby allowing desired cuts across its planes.

Laser Drill Hole

Refers to a hole created in a diamond via the use of a laser beam to serve the main purpose of treating any imperfections in it.

Laser Drilling

Another treatment in which a laser is used to drill to an imperfection or inclusion which is then bleached chemically to augment the brilliance of the diamond.

Leakage

In a shallow or deep cut diamond, light entering the stone escapes through the pavilion rather than reflecting from the crown.

Length to Width Ratio

Ratio of the length of a diamond from table to culet to the width of its girdle.

Loupe

A magnifying lens used to scrutinize a diamond closely, revealing imperfections invisible to the unaided eye.

Lower Girdle Facets

16 facets in a round / brilliant cut stone that rest just below the girdle with their edges abutting upon the girdle's boundary.

Luster

Depending largely on the polish, refractive index and surface condition of a stone, the luster is the overall appearance of its surface under light reflections.

M

Make

The overall quality and finish of a polished gemstone.

Marquise Cut

Refers to a diamond shape wherein the girdle of the stone is shaped like a boat or an eye. This can be clearly observed when one looks at the stone from a viewpoint directly above it.

Melee

Faceted diamonds weighing 0.12 carat or less.

Metallurgist

A professionally qualified individual dedicated to the field of metallurgy i.e. evaluating the composition of metal alloys, separating ores from metals and heating metals to mold them into different shapes.

Metallurgy

A branch of science that deals with studying the properties of different metals and their production processes.

Milgrain

A finishing style which creates a beaded effect along the metal boundaries of a piece of jewelry.

Mixed Cut

A unique style of cutting which comprises of both round / brilliant and step cut.

Mohs Scale

A scale ranging from 0 to 10 to denote the hardness of a gemstone. The scale rates a mineral's ability to resist external pressures, corrosions, scratches, abrasions etc. As we move upwards on this scale, the hardness increases. A diamond scores higher than any other mineral making it a 10 on the Mohs Scale.

Mounting

A section of jewelry made from metal intended for the stone to be set into.

N

Natural

The original portion of a rough diamond left untouched on a polished stone. Located most commonly near the girdle.

Nail Head

When a diamond is cut too deep, light escapes through the pavilion lending it a dark circular effect just under the table.

Needle

An imperfection or inclusion of a very slight degree present in a diamond.

Nick

Resembles a scratch mostly near the girdle of a diamond.

O

Opaque

A material which does not allow light to pass through it; neither transparent nor translucent.

Oval Cut

Refers to the shape of a diamond wherein the portion that separates the crown from the pavilion (i.e. the girdle) has an oval or elliptical outline. This can be clearly seen when the diamond is looked at from above.

P

Parcel Paper

Protective paper used to store rough or polished diamonds.

Patented Cut

A branded diamond cut exclusive to a particular jeweller. It differs from a fancy cut as it isn't fashioned by just anyone in the industry, rather it's a signature cut sold by a singular jeweller.

Pave Setting

A setting of small diamonds set closely together. Each diamond is held in place by metal beads. This creates a stunning optical effect of an uninterrupted surface of diamonds.

Pavilion

The lower portion of a diamond just below the girdle.

Pavilion Angle

Measured angle between the main pavilion facets and the table of a diamond.

Pavilion Depth

Measured from the intersection of the pavilion main facets on the girdle to the cutlet, this is the average depth of the pavilion to the average diameter.

Pavilion Main Facets

On a round / brilliant cut diamond, these are the eight facets that sit on the pavilion with their points abutting the girdle boundary.

Pear Cut

The shape of a diamond wherein the portion that separates the crown from the pavilion (i.e. the girdle) has a teardrop shaped outline. This can be viewed clearly when the diamond is looked at from an angle perpendicular to its table.

Phosphorescence

A property of the diamond to store up energy on exposure to ultraviolet radiation and emit visible light even after being shut off from it.

Pinpoint

A circular inclusion or imperfection of a minuscule degree on a diamond.

Pit

A minute dent on the surface of a diamond.

Plotting Diagram

A pictorial representation of a diamond complete with its shape, style, internal and external traits.

Point

A scale of measurement which is approximately 1 carat of a diamond to 1/100 of a point. That is, 100 points equals 1 carat.

Polish

Minute parallel lines created by a polishing or grinding wheel when it rolls over the surface of a diamond. Higher the polish, fewer the polish lines.

Polished Girdle

A diamond's girdle which has been polished to form a large and single facet that results in a smooth / reflective surface. Through a polished facet, one can see inside a diamond's body.

Princess Cut

Term used to refer to the shape of a diamond wherein the outline of the stone when looked at from an angle perpendicular to the table is rectangular or squarish with pointed corners.

Prong Setting

A type of setting that most commonly consists of 4 or 6 metal claws that tightly grasp the gemstone in place. It exposes more of the stone than a bezel setting does. These results in light rays entering the gemstone from multiple angles making it seem much larger than it is.

Proportions

Refers to the various dimensions of a diamond such as girdle thickness, crown and pavilion angle, length to width ratio, table diameter, etc.

Q

Quality

A term encapsulating the clarity, cut and color of a diamond.

R

Radiance

Also referred to as sparkle, it is the measure of refracted and reflected light that strikes the surface of a diamond.

Radiant Cut

Refers to a diamond shape with a square or rectangular girdle and clipped corners. The shape can be observed clearly when the diamond is looked at from directly above. This type of shape usually boasts of 70 facets.

Reflection

As the word suggests, it is a phenomenon of light that bounces off of the surface of a diamond.

Refraction

Bending of a ray of light as it permeates the surface of a diamond.

Refractive Index

The degree of bending of a ray of light as it passes through a diamond.

Resizing

Process of altering the size of a ring to best suit the needs of the customer.

Rough

Refers to diamond which has not been subjected to any polishing or cutting, rather one which is in its rudimentary form.

Round / Brilliant Cut

Refers to the shape of a diamond with a circular outline when looked at from an angle perpendicular to the table. It is one of the oldest and most popular diamond cuts in the industry. This type of cut boasts of 58 facets or 57 if the culet is not included.

S

Saturation

A characteristic of a color which signifies its strength.

Scaife

Polishing mechanism that consists of a flat metal wheel upon which diamonds are cut and smoothened.

Scintillation

Intense flashes of light fluctuating across the facets of a diamond in motion.

Scratch

A narrow and shallow groove running across the surface of a diamond.

Setting

The metal part of a piece of jewellery commonly known as a Mount. Usually crafted from gold, platinum or silver.

Shallow Cut

A diamond cut wherein the light entering the stone hits the pavilion facets at an extremely low angle and leaks through the bottom. As a result, this diamond lacks sparkle and will appear extremely dull.

Shape

The outline or silhouette of a diamond when observed from an angle perpendicular to the table. The most popular shape is the Round / Brilliant cut. Fancy shapes include Princess, Marquise, Asscher, Pear, Oval, Cushion, Baguette, Emerald, Radiant and Heart.

Simulated Diamond

An imitation or a synthetic diamond created by manmade intervention fashioned to mimic the appearance of a real stone.

Single Cut

Commonly referred to as a round cut diamond but with 17 facets; 9 crown facets and 8 pavilion facets.

Solitaire

A single diamond.

Solitaire Gemmological Laboratories (SGL)

A world reputed gemological laboratory hailing from the United Kingdom. Specializes in diamond research and certification.

Species

A cluster of gemstones with coinciding chemical and physical properties.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of density of a substance to the density of water.

Stability

Measure of the vulnerability of a diamond in reasonable conditions. To wit, more vulnerable - less stable and vice versa.

Star Facets

In a round / brilliant cut diamond, these are eight symmetrical facets that are positioned just beneath the table on the upper crown area of the stone. When observed from an angle perpendicular to the table, these facets combined create a star like optical effect.

Star Length

A distance projected horizontally from the edge of the table to the point of the star facet.

Step Cut

Refers to the style of diamond in which cutting results in leveled facets that is parallel to the girdle and shrink in size as they move away from it. Resembles stairs when looked at from above.

Surface Coating

A thin layer applied to the surface of a diamond to render any imperfections undetectable.

Surface Graining

Imperfections mostly in the form of transparent lines which are only detectable at specific angles and when viewed under standardized lighting.

Symmetry

Describes the overall proportions of a diamond including the ratio between each facet as well as their arrangement. The symmetry is graded on a scale ranging from Excellent to Poor.

Synthetic Diamond

An imitation or a simulated diamond created by manmade intervention to mimic the appearance of a real stone.

T

Table

The flat horizontal surface on the crown of a diamond. Being the largest facet, it is the spot where most of the light enters and exits the stone. As such, it plays a vital role in the light performance and brilliance of the diamond.

Table Percentage

Measured percentage acquired by dividing the diameter of the table by the average diameter of the diamond.

Tone

A characteristic of color which indicates its depth i.e. lightness and darkness.

Toughness

Capacity of a diamond with respect to its ability to withstand pressure.

Treatment

A kind of application to which a diamond is subjected to, to augment its traits and increase its market value. This could include improving the stone's clarity, color, durability, etc.

Triangle / Trielle / Trilliant / Trillion Cut

Refers to the shape of a diamond wherein its outline or silhouette is triangular or three sided when viewed from an angle perpendicular to the stone's table. The edges of the diamond could be slightly curved or absolutely straight.

Twinning Wisp

A type of imperfection formed at the time of growth of a diamond. It could be a cloudy area, a crystal or pinpoints in the stone.

Types

Diamonds are categorized as either Type 1 or Type 2 depending on their trace elements and atomic structure.

U

Ultraviolet Light

Invisible region of the light spectrum that cannot be detected by the naked eye owing to its shorter wavelength. U.V. light is used in the industry to detect fluorescence in diamonds.

Upper Girdle Facets.

16 facets in a round / brilliant cut diamond present on the lower crown area just above the girdle. Their edges abut upon the girdle boundary.

W

Wavy Girdle

A misalignment of the pavilion facets and the crown. The girdle is not accurately aligned with the table.

Weight

The weight of a diamond is measured in carats. 1 carat = 0.20 grams.

Well Made

A diamond with an excellent finish and polish.

White

Terminology to refer to diamond color ranging between D – H on the scale.

White Light

Refers to light comprising of a well balanced mixture of wavelengths from the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

X

X - Ray Fluorescence

The capacity of a diamond to emit energy through secondary x-rays when exposed to a high energy x-ray.

Y

Yield

After polishing a diamond from the rough, yield is the total carat weight obtained.